Crude oil dispersants profoundly increase the toxicity of crude oil to coral reefs. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Short and long term toxicity of crude oil and oil dispersants to two representative coral species.
Environ Sci Technol. 2007 Aug 1;41(15):5571-4. PMID: 17822134
Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Research, National Institute of Oceanography, Tel Shikmona, P.O. Box 8030, Haifa 31080, Israel. firstname.lastname@example.org
Oil dispersants, the tool of choice for treating oil spills in tropical marine environments, is potentially harmful to marine life, including reef corals. In a previous study, we found that dispersed oil and oil dispersants are harmful to soft and hard coral species at early life stages. In this broader study, we employed a "nubbin assay" on more than 10 000 coral fragments to evaluate the short- and long-term impacts of dispersed oil fractions (DOFs) from six commercial dispersants, the dispersants and water-soluble-fractions (WSFs) of Egyptian crude oil, on two Indo Pacific branching coral species, Stylophora pistillata and Pocillopora damicornis. Survivorship and growth of nubbins were recorded for up to 50 days following a single, short (24 h) exposure to toxicants in various concentrations. Manufacturer-recommended dispersant concentrations proved to be highly toxic and resulted in mortality for all nubbins. The dispersed oil and the dispersants were significantly more toxic than crude oil WSFs. As corals are particularly susceptible to oil detergents and dispersed oil, the results of these assays rules out the use of any oil dispersant in coral reefs and in their vicinity. The ecotoxicological impacts of the various dispersants on the corals could be rated on a scale from the least to the most harmful agent, as follows: Slickgone>Petrotech>Inipol = Biorieco>Emulgal>Dispolen.