Curcumin has immunomodulatory effects on RANKL-stimulated osteoclastogenesis in vitro and titanium nanoparticle-induced bone loss in vivo.
J Cell Mol Med. 2019 Dec 17. Epub 2019 Dec 17. PMID: 31845532
Wear particle-stimulated inflammatory bone destruction and the consequent aseptic loosening remain the primary causes of artificial prosthesis failure and revision. Previous studies have demonstrated that curcumin has a protective effect on bone disorders and inflammatory diseases and can ameliorate polymethylmethacrylate-induced osteolysis in vivo. However, the effect on immunomodulation and the definitive mechanism by which curcumin reduces the receptor activators of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL)-stimulated osteoclast formation and prevents the activation of osteoclastic signalling pathways are unclear. In this work, the immunomodulation effect and anti-osteoclastogenesis capacities exerted by curcumin on titanium nanoparticle-stimulated macrophage polarization and on RANKL-mediated osteoclast activation and differentiation in osteoclastic precursor cells in vitro were investigated. As expected, curcumin inhibited RANKL-stimulated osteoclast maturation and formation and had an immunomodulatory effect on macrophage polarization in vitro. Furthermore, studies aimed to identify the potential molecular and cellular mechanisms revealed that this protective effect of curcumin on osteoclastogenesis occurred through the amelioration of the activation of Akt/NF-κB/NFATc1 pathways. Additionally, an in vivo mouse calvarial bone destruction model further confirmed that curcumin ameliorated the severity of titanium nanoparticle-stimulated bone loss and destruction. Our results conclusively indicated that curcumin, a major biologic component of Curcuma longa with anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties, may serve as a potential therapeutic agent for osteoclastic diseases.