Curcumin prevents colon carcinogenesis. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Chemoprevention of colonic aberrant crypt foci by an inducible nitric oxide synthase-selective inhibitor.
Carcinogenesis. 1999 Apr;20(4):641-4. PMID: 10223193
Chemoprevention Program, American Health Foundation, Valhalla, NY 10595, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is overexpressed in colonic tumors of humans and also in rats treated with a colon carcinogen. iNOS appear to regulate cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and production of proinflammatory prostaglandins, which are known to play a key role in colon tumor development. Experiments were designed to study the inhibitory effects of S,S'-1,4-phenylene-bis(1,2-ethanediyl)bis-isothiourea (PBIT) a selective iNOS-specific inhibitor, measured against formation of azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF). Beginning at 5 weeks of age, male F344 rats were fed experimental diets containing 0 or 50 p.p.m. of PBIT, or 2000 p.p.m. of curcumin (non-specific iNOS inhibitor). One week later, rats were injected s.c. with AOM (15 mg/kg body wt, once weekly for 2 weeks). At 17 weeks of age, all rats were killed, colons were evaluated for ACF formation and colonic mucosa was assayed for isoforms of COX and NOS activities. Both COX and iNOS activities in colonic mucosa of the AOM-treated rats were significantly induced. Importantly, 50 p.p.m. PBIT suppressed AOM-induced colonic ACF formation to 58% (P<0.0001) and crypt multiplicity containing four or more crypts per focus to 78% (P<0.0001); it also suppressed AOM-induced iNOS activity. Curcumin inhibited colonic ACF formation by 45% (P<0.001). These observations suggest that iNOS may play a key regulatory role in colon carcinogenesis. Developing iNOS-specific inhibitors may provide a selective and safe chemopreventive strategy for colon cancer treatment.