Cyclooxygenase-2 expression and oxidative DNA adducts in murine intestinal adenomas: modification by dietary curcumin and implications for clinical trials.
Eur J Cancer. 2006 Feb;42(3):415-21. Epub 2006 Jan 4. PMID: 16387490
Cancer Biomarkers and Prevention Group, Departments of Cancer Studies and Biochemistry, University of Leicester, Leicester LE2 7LX, UK.
The natural polphenol, curcumin, retards the growth of intestinal adenomas in the Apc(Min+) mouse model of human familial adenomatous polyposis. In other preclinical models, curcumin downregulates the transcription of the enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and decreases levels of two oxidative DNA adducts, the pyrimidopurinone adduct of deoxyguanosine (M1dG) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG). We have studied COX-2 protein expression and oxidative DNA adduct levels in intestinal adenoma tissue from Apc(Min+) mice to try and differentiate between curcumin's direct pharmacodynamic effects and indirect effects via its inhibition of adenoma growth. Mice received dietary curcumin (0.2%) for 4 or 14 weeks. COX-2 protein, M1dG and 8-oxo-dG levels were measured by Western blot, immunochemical assay and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively. In control Apc(Min+) mice, the levels of all three indices measured in adenoma tissue were significantly higher than levels in normal mucosa. Lifetime administration of curcumin reduced COX-2 expression by 66% (P = 0.01), 8-oxo-dG levels by 24% (P<0.05) and M1dG levels by 39% (P<0.005). Short-term feeding did not affect total adenoma number or COX-2 expression, but decreased M1dG levels by 43% (P<0.01). COX-2 protein levels related to adenoma size. These results demonstrate the utility of measuring these oxidative DNA adduct levels to show direct antioxidant effects of dietary curcumin. The effects of long-term dietary curcumin on COX-2 protein levels appear to reflect retardation of adenoma development.