Cyanidin-3-glucoside enhances mitochondrial function and biogenesis in a human hepatocyte cell line.
Cytotechnology. 2018 Dec ;70(6):1519-1528. Epub 2018 Aug 28. PMID: 30155610
Mitochondrial dysfunction has been identified as one of the primary factors contributing to liver diseases. Pathways that control mitochondrial biogenesis are potential therapeutic targets for the amelioration of hepatocyte dysfunction and liver disease. Research on natural pharmacological agents that ameliorate liver diseases has intensified over the last two decades. Cyanidin-3-glucoside (Cy3g), a dietary flavonoid compound extracted from a wide variety of fruits and vegetables, reportedly has several beneficial health effects. In this study, we used an adult human hepatoma cell line (HuH7) to investigate the effects of the Cy3g polyphenolic compound on mitochondrial function and biogenesis in vitro. An increase in intracellular mitochondrial reductase levels was observed after treatment with Cy3g, but cytotoxicity was not induced. In addition, mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP production were increased following Cy3g treatment. Cy3g treatment also resulted in a dose- and time-dependent upregulation of the gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), a transcription factor considered a master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis and metabolism. Additionally, the expression of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), which plays a key role in deacetylating PGC-1α, was also increased in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Cy3g treatment also increased the expression of downstream PGC-1α genes, nuclear respiratory factor 1 and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM). Our results suggest that Cy3g has potential as a hepatoprotective therapeutic agent that enhances mitochondrial function and biogenesis in hepatocytes.