Cytotoxic activity of standardized extracts, a fraction, and individual secondary metabolites from fenugreek seeds against SKOV-3, HeLa and MOLT-4 cell lines.
Pharm Biol. 2021 Dec ;59(1):424-437. PMID: 33849376
CONTEXT: L. (Fabaceae) has many therapeutic properties and anticancer potential.
OBJECTIVE: The cytotoxic activities of standardized extracts and a fraction from fenugreek seeds and their compounds (sapogenins, flavone C-glycosides, alkaloid trigonelline) against human cancer SKOV-3, HeLa and MOLT-4 cells were evaluated.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fenugreek seeds were extracted with 70% methanol (A) or water (B). Furthermore, the seeds were purified with petroleum ether and chloroform and next extracted with methanol to obtain fraction (C). The quantitative analysis of saponins and flavonoids in the extracts was done with HPLC methods. The extracts (5-120 µg/mL) and compounds (1-50 µg/mL) were tested on the cells by MTT assay and RTCA system. The effect of a fraction on ROS production, mitochondrial membrane potential and caspase-3/7 activity in HeLa and SKOV-3 cells was also evaluated by flow cytometry.
RESULTS: The strongest cytotoxic activity on cancer cells showed the fraction C (ICwas 3.91 ± 0.03 for HeLa, 3.97 ± 0.07 for SKOV-3, and 7.75 ± 0.37 for MOLT-4) with the highest content of steroidal saponins (163.18 ± 11.03 μg/mg) and flavone C-glycosides (820.18 ± 0.05 μg/mg). The fraction significantly increased ROS production (up to four times higher thanin keratinocytes as control) and caspases activity in the cells. The examined flavonoids did not exhibit the cytotoxic activity in contrast to yamogenin, tigogenin, and diosgenin.
CONCLUSIONS: The obtained results complement the data on the cytotoxic activity ofand synergistic effect of flavonoids and saponins complex contained in the plant.