Three-Month Daily Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Affects the Liver, Adipose Tissue, and Glucose Metabolism.
J Obes Metab Syndr. 2020 Feb 7. Epub 2020 Feb 7. PMID: 32045514
Background: Growing evidence suggests links between sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and metabolic disorders. We investigated the effects of SSBs commonly consumed by adolescents and their relationships to glucose metabolism and fatty liver.
Methods: We treated 7-week old male C57BL/6 mice with water (control) or one of three different SSBs, carbonated soda (Coca-Cola), milk-sweetened milk coffee (Maxwell), or chocolate-added cocoa (Choco-Latte), for 13 weeks (n=10 in each group). Half of the animals were fed a regular chow diet and the other half a high-fat diet (40% fat). Body composition and biochemical variables were investigated at the end of treatment. Histology of the liver and adipose tissue, as well as molecular signaling related to glucose and lipid metabolism, were also evaluated.
Results: During the 13-week treatment, mice treated with chocolate-added cocoa or milk-sweetened coffee showed significantly greater increases in body weight compared with controls, especially when fed a high-fat diet. Fasting glucose level was higher in the three SSB-treated groups compared with the control group. Lipid droplets in the liver, fat cell size, and number of CD68-positive cells in adipose tissue were greater in the SSB-treated groups than in the control group. SSB treatments increased the expression of genes related to inflammatory processes in the liver and adipose tissue. Phosphorylation of AKT and glycogen synthase kinase in muscle was significantly reduced in SSB-treated groups.
Conclusion: Daily consumption of SSBs over 3 months lead to metabolic impairment and weight gain and may contribute to development of metabolic diseases.