Dandelion Chloroform Extract Promotes Glucose Uptake via the AMPK/GLUT4 Pathway in L6 Cells.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2018 ;2018:1709587. Epub 2018 Nov 7. PMID: 30524480
The number of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing rapidly worldwide. Glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) is one of the main proteins that transport blood glucose into the cells and is a target in the treatment of T2DM. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of action of dandelion chloroform extract (DCE) on glucose uptake in L6 cells. The glucose consumption of L6 cell culture supernatant was measured by a glucose uptake assay kit, and the dynamic changes of intracellular GLUT4 and calcium (Ca) levels were monitored by laser scanning confocal microscopy in L6 cell lines stably expressing IRAP-mOrange. The GLUT4 fusion with the plasma membrane (PM) was traced via myc-GLUT4-mOrange. GLUT4 expression and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), protein kinase B (PKB/Akt), protein kinase C (PKC), and phosphorylation levels were determined by performing western blotting. GLUT4 mRNA expression was detected by real-time PCR. DCE up-regulated GLUT4 expression, promoted GLUT4 translocation and fusion to the membrane eventually leading to glucose uptake, and induced AMPK phosphorylation in L6 cells. The AMPK inhibitory compound C significantly inhibited DCE-induced GLUT4 expression and translocation while no inhibitory effect was observed by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor Wortmannin and PKC inhibitor Gö6983. These data suggested that DCE promoted GLUT4 expression and transport to the membrane through the AMPK signaling pathway, thereby stimulating GLUT4 fusion with PM to enhance glucose uptake in L6 cells. DCE-induced GLUT4 translocation was also found to be Ca-independent. Together, these findings indicate that DCE could be a new hypoglycemic agent for the treatment of T2DM.