Oleuropein-Induced Apoptosis Is Mediated by Mitochondrial Glyoxalase 2 in NSCLC A549 Cells: A Mechanistic Inside and a Possible Novel Nonenzymatic Role for an Ancient Enzyme.
Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2019 ;2019:8576961. Epub 2019 Jul 22. PMID: 31428230
Oleuropein (OP) is a bioactive compound derived from plants of the genus Oleaceae exhibiting antitumor properties in several human cancers, including non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Recent evidence suggests that OP has proapoptotic effects on NSCLC cells via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. However, the exact molecular mechanisms behind the apoptogenic action of OP in NSCLC are still largely unknown. Glyoxalase 2 (Glo2) is an ancient enzyme belonging to the glyoxalase system involved in the detoxification of glycolysis-derived methylglyoxal. However, emerging evidence suggests that Glo2 may have also nonenzymatic roles in some malignant cells. In the present study, we evaluated whether and how Glo2 participated in the proapoptotic effects of OP in NSCLC A549 cells. Our results indicate that OP is able to induce apoptosis in A549 cells through the upregulation of mitochondrial Glo2 (mGlo2), mediated by the superoxide anion and Akt signaling pathway. Moreover, our data shows that the proapoptotic role of mGlo2, observed following OP exposure, occurs via the interaction of mGlo2 with the proapoptotic Bax protein. Conversely, OP does not alter the behavior of nonmalignant human BEAS-2B cells or mGlo2 expression, thus suggesting a specific anticancer role for this bioactive compound in NSCLC. Our data identify a novel pathway through which OP exerts a proapoptotic effect in NSCLC and suggest, for the first time, a novel, nonenzymatic antiapoptotic role for this ancient enzyme in NSCLC.