Cardiovascular protection of deep-seawater drinking water in high-fat/cholesterol fed hamsters.
Food Chem. 2011 Aug 1 ;127(3):1146-52. Epub 2011 Feb 23. PMID: 25214107
Cardiovascular protection of deep-seawater (DSW) drinking water was assessed using high-fat/cholesterol-fed hamsters in this study. All hamsters were fed a high-fat/cholesterol diet (12% fat/0.2% cholesterol), and drinking solutions were normal distiled water (NDW, hardness: 2.48ppm), DSW300 (hardness: 324.5ppm), DSW900 (hardness: 858.5ppm), and DSW1500 (hardness: 1569.0ppm), respectively. After a 6-week feeding period, body weight, heart rates, and blood pressures of hamsters were not influenced by DSW drinking waters. Serum total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TAG), atherogenic index, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were decreased (p<0.05) in the DSW-drinking-water groups, as compared to those in the NDW group. Additionally, increased (p<0.05) serum Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and faecal TC, TAG, and bile acid outputs were measured in the DSW-drinking-water groups. Hepatic low-density-lipoprotein receptor (LDL receptor) and cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) gene expressions were upregulated (p<0.05) by DSW drinking waters. These results demonstrate that DSW drinking water benefits the attenuation of high-fat/cholesterol-diet-induced cardiovascular disorders in hamsters.