Delphinidin induces apoptosis and inhibits epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition via the ERK/p38 MAPK-signaling pathway in human osteosarcoma cell lines.
Environ Toxicol. 2018 Jun ;33(6):640-649. Epub 2018 Feb 16. PMID: 29451351
Delphinidin is major anthocyanidin that is extracted from many pigmented fruits and vegetables. This substance has anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic, and anti-cancer properties. In addition, delphinidin strongly suppresses the migration and invasion of various cancer cells during tumorigenesis. Although delphinidin has anti-cancer effects, little is known about its functional roles in osteosarcoma (OS). For these reasons, we have demonstrated the effects of delphinidin on OS cell lines. The effects of delphinidin on cell viability and growth of OS cells were assessed using the MTT assay and colony formation assays. Hoechst staining indicated that the delphinidin-treated OS cells were undergoing apoptosis. Flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, and a western blot analysis also indicated evidence of apoptosis. Inhibition of cell migration and invasion was found to be associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), observed by using a wound healing assay, an invasion assay, and a western blot analysis. Furthermore, delphinidin treatment resulted in a profound reduction of phosphorylated forms of ERK and p38. These findings demonstrate that delphinidin treatment suppressed EMT through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway in OS cell lines. Taken together, our results suggest that delphinidin strongly inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis. Delphinidin treatment also suppresses cell migration and prevents EMT via the MAPK-signaling pathway in OS cell lines. For these reasons, delphinidin has anti-cancer effects and can suppress metastasis in OS cell lines, and it might be worth using as an OS therapeutic agent.