Delphinidin is a promising shielding agent against radiation. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Radioprotective effects of delphinidin on normal human lung cells against proton beam exposure.
Nutr Res Pract. 2018 Feb ;12(1):41-46. Epub 2018 Jan 18. PMID: 29399295
Hyun Mi Kim
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Exposure of the normal lung tissue around the cancerous tumor during radiotherapy causes serious side effects such as pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis. Radioprotectors used during cancer radiotherapy could protect the patient from side effects induced by radiation injury of the normal tissue. Delphinidin has strong antioxidant properties, and it works as the driving force of a radioprotective effect by scavenging radiation-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, no studies have been conducted on the radioprotective effect of delphinidin against high linear energy transfer radiation. Therefore, this study was undertaken to evaluate the radioprotective effects of delphinidin on human lung cells against a proton beam.
MATERIALS/METHODS: Normal human lung cells (HEL 299 cells) were used for in vitro experiments. The 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay assessed the cytotoxicity of delphinidin and cell viability. The expression of radiation induced cellular ROS was measured by the 2'-7'-dicholordihydrofluorescein diacetate assay. Superoxide dismutase activity assay and catalase activity assay were used for evaluating the activity of corresponding enzymes. In addition, radioprotective effects on DNA damage-induced cellular apoptosis were evaluated by Western blot assay.
RESULTS: Experimental analysis, including cell survival assay, MTT assay, and Western blot assay, revealed the radioprotective effects of delphinidin. These include restoring the activities of antioxidant enzymes of damaged cells, increase in the levels of pro-survival protein, and decrease of pro-apoptosis proteins. The results from different experiments were compatible with each to provide a substantial conclusion.
CONCLUSION: Low concentration (2.5µM/mL) of delphinidin administration prior to radiation exposure was radioprotective against a low dose of proton beam exposure. Hence, delphinidin is a promising shielding agent against radiation, protecting the normal tissues around a cancerous tumor, which are unintentionally exposed to low doses of radiation during proton therapy.