Cardiovascular toxicity and anxiety-like behavior induced by deltamethrin in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae.
Chemosphere. 2019 Mar ;219:155-164. Epub 2018 Dec 5. PMID: 30537588
Deltamethrin is widely used because of its low toxicity and high efficiency. Although its potential toxicity has been reported, its effects on cardiovascular system and motor behavior and its underlying mechanisms have remained unclear. In this study, the effects of deltamethrin on the development, cardiovascular system and motor behavior of zebrafish larvae and their possible mechanisms were evaluated using the transgenic zebrafish Tg (kdrl:mCherry) and Tg(myl7:GFP). At 72 hpf, the body length of larvae shortened, the head and eye area decreased, and the hatching rate increased. Acridine orange staining showed that treated zebrafish larvae produced different degrees of apoptosis in the head, body, heart and tail regions. Quantitative fluorescence intensity showed a dose-dependent increase in apoptosis signal, indicating that deltamethrin could induce apoptosis. Confocal images and fluorescence intensity quantification of red fluorescent protein-labeled vascular endothelial cell and green fluorescent protein-labeled transgenic zebrafish more clearly reflected the dose-dependent cardiac and vascular morphology and the damage caused by deltamethrin. Deltamethrin significantly induced vascular endothelial growth factor flk1 and fli-1, cardiac development-related gene myl7 decreased in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, deltamethrin increased the thigmotaxis of zebrafish larvae, causing anxiety-like behavior. Our study showed that deltamethrin could cause developmental toxicity, apoptosis, cardiovascular system damage and anxiety-like behavior, which provided a reference for the use of deltamethrin in agricultural production.