Demethoxycurcumin: A naturally occurring curcumin analogue for treating non-cancerous diseases.
J Cell Physiol. 2019 Nov ;234(11):19320-19330. Epub 2019 Apr 4. PMID: 31344992
Turmeric extracts contain three primary compounds, which are commonly referred to as curcuminoids. They are curcumin, demethoxycurcumin (DMC), and bisdemethoxycurcumin. While curcumin has been the most extensively studied of the curcuminoids, it suffers from low overall oral bioavailability due to extremely low absorption as a result of low water solubility and instability at acidic pH, as well as rapid metabolism and clearance from the body. However, DMC, which lacks the methoxy group on the benzene ring of the parent structure, has much greater chemical stability at physiological pH and has been recently reported to exhibit antitumor properties. However, the treatment of noncancerous diseases with DMC has not been comprehensively reviewed. Therefore, here we evaluate published scientific literature on the therapeutic properties of DMC. The beneficial pharmacological actions of DMC include anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, antihypertensive, antimalarial, antimicrobial, antifungal, and vasodilatory properties. In addition, DMC's ability to ameliorate the effects of free radicals and an environment characterized by oxidative stress caused by the accumulation of advanced glycation end-products associated with diabetic nephropathy, as well as DMC's capacity to inhibit the migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells following balloon angioplasty are also addressed. This review collates the available literature regarding the therapeutic possibilities of DMC in noncancerous conditions.