Dengue haemorrhagic fever: a job done via exosomes? - GreenMedInfo Summary
Dengue haemorrhagic fever: a job done via exosomes?
Emerg Microbes Infect. 2019 ;8(1):1626-1635. PMID: 31711408
Dengue fever is one of those unique diseases where host immune responses largely determine the pathogenesis and its severity. Earlier studies have established the fact that dengue virus (DENV) infection causes haemorrhagic fever and shock syndrome, but it is not directly responsible for exhibiting these clinical symptoms. It is noteworthy that clinically, vascular leakage syndrome does not develop for several days after infection despite a robust innate immune response that elicits the production of proinflammatory and proangiogenic cytokines. The onset of hyperpermeability in severe cases of dengue disease takes place around the time of defervescence and after clearance of viraemia. Extracellular vesicles are known to carry biological information (mRNA, miRNA, transcription factors) from their cells of origin and have emerged as a significant vehicle for horizontal transfer of stress signals. In dengue virus infection, the relevance of exosomes can be instrumental since the majority of the immune responses in severe dengue involve heavy secretion and circulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Here, we present an updated review which will address the unique and puzzling features of hyperpermeability associated with DENV infection with a special focus on the role of secreted extracellular vesicles.