Docosahexaenoic acid signaling attenuates the proliferation and differentiation of bone marrow-derived osteoclast precursors and promotes apoptosis in mature osteoclasts.
Cell Signal. 2016 Nov 9 ;29:226-232. Epub 2016 Aug 9. PMID: 27836739
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a component of omega-3 fatty acids, has been reported to protect against inflammatory bone diseases such as osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis. However, its exact mechanism in bone resorbing cells has not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated the effects and the molecular mechanism of DHA on the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of osteoclast lineage cells using mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs). DHA suppressed the macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)-induced proliferation of osteoclast precursors, BMMs, in a dose-dependent manner. The attenuated proliferation of DHA-treated BMMs was related to M-CSF inhibition that selectively decreased Akt activation and downregulated cyclin D1 and cyclin D2 expression. DHA also blocked receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation from BMMs. At the molecular level, DHA inhibited JNK, ERK, and p38 MAPKs. In addition, it inhibited NF-κB signaling cascades, as demonstrated by the suppression of RANKL-mediated IκBα phosphorylation, NF-κB subunit p65 nuclear translocation,and NF-κB transcriptional activation. Accordingly, DHA attenuated the induction of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1). Furthermore, DHA accelerated the apoptosis of mature osteoclasts by inducing Bim expression, a critical modulator of osteoclast apoptosis. Collectively, ourdata demonstrate that DHA exerts an anti-osteoclastogenic effect by suppressing the proliferation and differentiation of BMMs and enhancing the apoptosis of mature osteoclasts, thereby resulting in a diminished number of bone-resorptive cells.