Gestational stage sensitivity to ultrasound effect on postnatal growth and development of mice.
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2006 Aug;76(8):602-8. PMID: 16998817
Anatomy and Cell Biology Unit, Department of Preclinical Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad, West Indies. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND: An experiment was conducted to find out whether ultrasound exposure leads to changes in postnatal growth and development in the mouse.
METHODS: A total of 15 pregnant Swiss albino mice were exposed to diagnostic levels of ultrasound (3.5 MHz, 65 mW/cm2, I(SPTP) = 1 mW/cm2 Intensity(Spatial Peak-Temporal Peak), I(SATA) = 240 mW/cm2 Intensity(Spatial Average-Temporal Average)) for 30 min for a single day between days 10 and 18 of gestation (GD 10-18). Virgin female mice were placed with same age group males for mating in the ratio 2 females : 1 male and examined the next morning for the presence of vaginal plug, a sign of successful copulation. The females with vaginal plugs were separated and labeled as 0-day pregnant. Maternal vaginal temperature was also measured. A sham exposed control group of 15 pregnant mice was maintained for comparison. All exposed as well as control animals were left to complete gestation and parturition. Their offspring were used in our further studies. They were monitored during early postnatal life for standard developmental markers, postnatal mortality, body weight, body length, head length, and head width, and growth restriction was recorded up to 6 weeks of age.
RESULTS: An exposure to ultrasound induced nonsignificant deviations in the maternal vaginal temperature or developmental markers. Significant low birth weight was observed in the present study, after exposure at GD 11, 12, 14, and 16. However, 14 and 16 days postcoitus during the fetal period appears to be the most sensitive to the ultrasound effect, in view of the number of different effects as well as severity of most of the observed effects when exposed on these gestation days.
CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that diagnostic ultrasound can induce harmful effects on mouse growth and development when given at certain critical periods of gestation.