Nutrients intake and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in Italy.
Eur J Cancer. 2007 Nov ;43(16):2381-7. Epub 2007 Aug 23. PMID: 17719221
Unità di Epidemiologia e Biostatistica, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Via F. Gallini 2, 33081 Aviano, Italy. email@example.com
Although hepatitis C and B viruses and alcohol consumption are the major risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), dietary habits may also be relevant. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted in Italy in 1999-2002, including 185 HCC cases and 412 cancer-free controls. Dietary habits were assessed using a validated food-frequency questionnaire to compute nutrient intakes. Odds ratios (OR) and corresponding confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using the energy-adjusted residual models. Inverse association emerged for linoleic acid (OR=0.35 for highest versus lowest tertile; 95% CI: 0.18-0.69) and, possibly, beta-carotene (OR=0.48; 95% CI: 0.24-0.93). Among minerals, iron intake was associated with increased HCC risk (OR=3.00; 95% CI: 1.25-7.23), but the association was considerably reduced when iron from wine was excluded (OR=1.61; 95% CI: 0.78-3.30). In conclusion, a diet rich in linoleic acid containing foods (e.g. white meats and fish) and beta-carotene was inversely related to HCC risk.