Dietary fructose-induced gut dysbiosis promotes mouse hippocampal neuroinflammation. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Dietary fructose-induced gut dysbiosis promotes mouse hippocampal neuroinflammation: a benefit of short-chain fatty acids.
Microbiome. 2019 Jun 29 ;7(1):98. Epub 2019 Jun 29. PMID: 31255176
BACKGROUND: Western-style diets arouse neuroinflammation and impair emotional and cognitive behavior in humans and animals. Our previous study showed that a high-fructose diet caused the hippocampal neuroinflammatory response and neuronal loss in animals, but the underlying mechanisms remained elusive. Here, alterations in the gut microbiota and intestinal epithelial barrier were investigated as the causes of hippocampal neuroinflammation induced by high-fructose diet.
RESULTS: A high-fructose diet caused the hippocampal neuroinflammatory response, reactive gliosis, and neuronal loss in C57BL/6N mice. Depletion of the gut microbiota using broad-spectrum antibiotics suppressed the hippocampal neuroinflammatory response in fructose-fed mice, but these animals still exhibited neuronal loss. Gut microbiota compositional alteration, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) reduction, intestinal epithelial barrier impairment, NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 6 (NLRP6) inflammasome dysfunction, high levels of serum endotoxin, and FITC-dextran were observed in fructose-fed mice. Of note, SCFAs, as well as pioglitazone (a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) agonist), shaped the gut microbiota and ameliorated intestinal epithelial barrier impairment and NLRP6 inflammasome dysfunction in fructose-fed mice. Moreover, SCFAs-mediated NLRP6 inflammasome activation was inhibited by histamine (a bacterial metabolite) in ex vivo colonic explants and suppressed in murine CT26 colon carcinoma cells transfected with NLRP6 siRNA. However, pioglitazone and GW9662 (a PPAR-γ antagonist) exerted no impact on SCFAs-mediated NLRP6 inflammasome activation in ex vivo colonic explants, suggesting that SCFAs may stimulate NLRP6 inflammasome independently of PPAR-γactivation. SCFAs and pioglitazone prevented fructose-induced hippocampal neuroinflammatory response and neuronal loss in mice. Additionally, SCFAs activated colonic NLRP6 inflammasome and increased DCXnewborn neurons in the hippocampal DG of control mice.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reveal that gut dysbiosis is a critical factor for a high-fructose diet-induced hippocampal neuroinflammation in C57BL/6N mice possibly mediated by impairing intestinal epithelial barrier. Mechanistically, the defective colonic NLRP6 inflammasome is responsible for intestinal epithelial barrier impairment. SCFAs can stimulate NLRP6 inflammasome and ameliorate the impairment of intestinal epithelial barrier, resulting in the protection against a high-fructose diet-induced hippocampal neuroinflammation and neuronal loss. This study addresses a gap in the understanding of neuronal injury associated with Western-style diets. A new intervention strategy for reducing the risk of neurodegenerative diseases through SCFAs supplementation or dietary fiber consumption is emphasized.