Dietary pterostilbene supplementation attenuates intestinal damage and immunological stress of broiler chickens challenged with lipopolysaccharide1.
J Anim Sci. 2019 Dec 11. Epub 2019 Dec 11. PMID: 31822918
The present study explored the potential effect of pterostilbene as a prophylactic treatment on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intestinal injury of broiler chickens by monitoring changes in mucosal injury indicators, redox status, and inflammatory responses. In total, 192 one-day-old male Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly divided into four groups. This trial consisted of a 2× 2 factorial design with a diet factor (supplemented with 0 or 400 mg/kg pterostilbene from 1 to 22 days of age) and a stress factor (intraperitoneally injected with saline or LPS at 5.0 mg/kg body weight at 21 days of age). The results showed that LPS challenge induced a decrease in body weight gain (P<0.001) of broilers during a 24-hour period post-injection; however, this decrease was prevented by pterostilbene supplementation (P = 0.031). Administration of LPS impaired the intestinal integrity of broilers, as indicated by increased plasma diamine oxidase (DAO) activity (P = 0.014) and D-lactate content (P<0.001), reduced jejunal villus height (VH; P<0.001) and the ratio of VH to crypt depth (VH:CD; P<0.001), as well as a decreased mRNA level of jejunal tight junction protein 1 (ZO-1; P = 0.002). In contrast, pterostilbene treatment increased VH:CD (P = 0.018) and up-regulated the mRNA levels of ZO-1 (P = 0.031) and occludin (P = 0.024) in the jejunum. Consistently, pterostilbene counteracted the LPS-induced increased DAO activity (P = 0.011) in the plasma. In addition, the LPS-challenged broilers exhibited increases in nuclear accumulation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 (P<0.001), the protein content of tumor necrosis factor alpha (P = 0.033), and the mRNA abundance of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β; P = 0.042) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3; P = 0.019). In contrast, pterostilbene inhibited the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 (P = 0.039) and suppressed the mRNA expression of IL-1β (P = 0.003) and NLRP3 (P = 0.049) in the jejunum. Moreover, pterostilbene administration induced a greater amount of reduced glutathione (P = 0.017) but a lower content of malondialdehyde (P = 0.023) in the jejunum of broilers compared with those received a basal diet. Overall, the current study indicates that dietary supplementation with pterostilbene may play a beneficial role in alleviating the intestinal damage of broiler chicks under the conditions of immunological stress.