Dietary soy protein containing isoflavonoids does not adversely affect the reproductive tract of male cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis).
J Nutr. 2007 Jun;137(6):1390-4. PMID: 17513396
Short-term dietary studies of soy-protein-derived isoflavonoids, using rodent and nonhuman primate models, have documented variable effects on the reproductive tract. Long-term effects of dietary soy and/or isoflavonoids on the reproductive tract of nonhuman primates have not been determined. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of long-term consumption of dietary soy isoflavonoids on histomorphology of the mammary glands and prostate gland, testis, and sperm counts in adult male cynomolgus macaques. Ninety-one adult male cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) were fed diets for 3 y differing only in protein source: 1) a soy-free, casein-lactalbumin-based diet or 2) a low-soy isoflavonoid diet ( approximately 6 mg . kg(-1) . d(-1)) or 3) a high-soy isoflavonoid diet ( approximately 12 mg . kg(-1) . d(-1)). Serum isoflavonoids were measured by liquid chromatographic-photodiode array electrospray MS. Mammary gland, prostate gland, and testes were obtained at postmortem and evaluated histopathologically and histomorphometrically. Epididymal and testicular sperm counts were performed. Serum isoflavonoid concentrations at 4 h postfeeding differed among all groups (P < 0.001) and were (means +/- SEM) 67 +/- 23 (soy-free diet), 799 +/- 44 (low-soy isoflavonoid diet), and 1458 +/- 80 nmol . L(-1) (high-soy isoflavonoid diet). Diet did not alter serum estradiol and testosterone concentrations or epididymal and testicular sperm counts. Organ weights and histologic indices did not differ among treatment groups. Mammary gland histopathologic and histomorphometric analysis revealed no abnormalities and no indication of gynecomastia. We found no evidence of an adverse effect of soy isoflavonoids at physiologically relevant doses within the reproductive organs of adult male macaques.