Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) Seed Total Protein and Protein Fractions Digests Reduce Biomarkers of Inflammation and Atherosclerosis in Macrophages In Vitro.
Mol Nutr Food Res. 2019 Oct ;63(19):e1900021. Epub 2019 Aug 7. PMID: 31343098
SCOPE: The objectives are to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic effects of digested total protein and digested protein fractions from chia seed in macrophages in vitro.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Total protein and protein fractions (albumin, globulin, glutelin, and prolamin) are isolated from chia seed and digested using simulated gastrointestinal conditions, resulting in digested total protein (DTP) and digested protein fractions (DPF). DTP and DPF are applied (1.0 mg mL) in RAW 264.4 macrophages stimulated with LPS (1 µg mL) for inflammation or ox-LDL (80 µg mL) for atherosclerosis. In the inflammatory process, DTP and DPF reduce p-NF-κB, iNOS, p-JNK, and AP-1. Digested glutelin reduces the secretion of nitric oxide (65.1%), reactive oxygen species (19.7%), prostaglandins (34.6%), TNF-α (24.1%), MCP-1 (18.9%), IL-6 (39.6%), and IL-10 (68.7%). DTP and DPF reduce the NF-κB translocation to nuclei. DTP and digested glutelin reduce iCAM expression (86.4%, 80.8%), LOX-1 (37.3%, 35.7%), iNOS (67.0%, 42.2%), and NF-κB (57.5%, 71.1%). DTP is effective in reducing secretion of nitric oxide (43.4%), lipid accumulation (41.9%), prostaglandins (41.9%), TNF-α (43.3%), MCP-1 (47.6%), and IL-6 (50.5%). Peptides from chia DTP and DPFare also characterized.
CONCLUSION: DTP and digested glutelin from chia seed reduce expression and secretion of markers related to inflammation and atherosclerosis pathways.