DIM has promising chemoprotective efficacy against DOX-induced toxicity. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Attenuation of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity and genotoxicity by an indole-based natural compound 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) through activation of Nrf2/ARE signaling pathways and inhibiting apoptosis.
Free Radic Res. 2017 Oct ;51(9-10):812-827. Epub 2017 Oct 12. PMID: 28922986
The most crucial complication related to doxorubicin (DOX) therapy is nonspecific cytotoxic effect on healthy normal cells. The clinical use of this broad-spectrum chemotherapeutic agent is restricted due to development of severe form of cardiotoxicity, myelosuppression, and genotoxicity which interfere with therapeutic schedule, compromise treatment outcome and may lead to secondary malignancy. 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) is a naturally occurring plant alkaloid formed by the hydrolysis of indolylmethyl glucosinolate (glucobrassicin). Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate the protective role of DIM against DOX-induced toxicity in mice. DOX was administered (5 mg/kg b.w., i.p.) and DIM was administered (25 mg/kg b.w., p.o.) in concomitant and 15 days pretreatment schedule. Results showed that DIM significantly attenuated DOX-induced oxidative stress in the cardiac tissues by reducing the levels of free radicals and lipid peroxidation, and by enhancing the level of glutathione (reduced) and the activity of antioxidant enzymes. The chemoprotective potential of DIM was confirmed by histopathological evaluation of heart and bone marrow niche. Moreover, DIM considerably mitigated DOX-induced clastogenicity, DNA damage, apoptosis, and myeloid hyperplasia in bone marrow niche. In addition, oral administration of DIM significantly (p < .05) stimulated the Nrf2-mediated activation of antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway and promoted expression of ARE-driven cytoprotective proteins, HO-1, NQO1, and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). In connection with that, DIM significantly attenuated DOX-induced apoptosis by upregulation ofBcl-2 expression and downregulation of Bax and caspase-3 expression. Thus, this study suggests that DIM has promising chemoprotective efficacy against DOX-induced toxicity and indicates its future use as an adjuvant in chemotherapy.