DIM inhibits prostate cancer cell growth. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Down-regulation of androgen receptor by 3,3'-diindolylmethane contributes to inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in both hormone-sensitive LNCaP and insensitive C4-2B prostate cancer cells.
Carcinogenesis. 2000 May;21(5):921-7. PMID: 17047070
Despite the initial efficacy of androgen deprivation therapy, most patients with advanced prostate cancer eventually progress to hormone-refractory prostate cancer, for which there is no curative therapy. Previous studies from our laboratory and others have shown the antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects of 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) in prostate cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanism of action of DIM has not been investigated in androgen receptor (AR)-positive hormone-responsive and -nonresponsive prostate cancer cells. Therefore, we investigated the effects of B-DIM, a formulated DIM with greater bioavailability, on AR, Akt, and nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) signaling in cells. We found that B-DIM significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in both cell lines. By Akt gene transfection, reverse transcription-PCR, Western blot analysis, and electrophoretic mobility shift assay, we found a potential crosstalk between Akt, NF-kappaB, and AR. Importantly, B-DIM significantly inhibited Akt activation, NF-kappaB DNA binding activity, AR phosphorylation, and the expressions of AR and prostate-specific antigen, suggesting that B-DIM could interrupt the crosstalk. Confocal studies revealed that B-DIM inhibited AR nuclear translocation, leading to the down-regulation of AR target genes. Moreover, B-DIM significantly inhibited C4-2B cell growth in a severe combined immunodeficiency-human model of experimental prostate cancer bone metastasis. These results suggest that B-DIM-induced cell proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction are partly mediated through the down-regulation of AR, Akt, and NF-kappaB signaling. These observations provide a rationale for devising novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of hormone-sensitive, but more importantly, hormone-refractory prostate cancer by using B-DIM alone or in combination with other therapeutics.