Influence of dispersants on the bioavailability and trophic transfer of petroleum hydrocarbons to larval topsmelt (Atherinops affinis).
Aquat Toxicol. 2001 Mar;52(1):49-60. PMID: 11163430
ETOX, Applied Sciences-269, Institute of Marine Sciences, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA. email@example.com
Use of chemical dispersants as oil spill clean-up agents may alter the normal behavior of petroleum hydrocarbons (PH) by increasing their functional water solubility, resulting in increased bioavailability and altered interactions between dispersant, oil, and biological membranes. The objective of this research was to determine the impact of dispersing agents on PH bioavailability and trophic transfer to larval fish from primary levels of a marine food chain. Uptake, bioaccumulation, depuration, and metabolic transformation of a model PH, [14C]naphthalene, were measured and compared for Prudhoe Bay crude oil (PBCO) dispersed with Corexit 9527(R) (DO) and undispersed preparations of the water-accommodated fraction (WAF) of PBCO. The model food chain consisted of a primary producer, Isochrysis galbana; and a primary consumer, the rotifer, Brachionus plicatilis; and larval topsmelt, Atherinops affinis. Direct aqueous (AQ) exposure was compared with combined aqueous and dietary (AQ&D) exposure. Dispersants altered the uptake and depuration processes of naphthalene, independent of aqueous concentrations, in primary trophic species of a marine food chain. The amount of naphthalene taken up by topsmelt was initially significantly (P