Dispersants increase the toxicity of crude oil to fauna species of a freshwater pond. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Impact of oil and oil-dispersant mixtures on the fauna of freshwater ponds.
Sci Total Environ. 1984 Apr 19;35(2):191-206. PMID: 6719106
In a series of 5 artificial ponds, one was treated with a nomial concentration of 100 ppm of crude oil, two others were treated with a nominal 100 ppm of oil and 20 ppm of dispersant. Mesozooplankton populations were reduced in the oil-treated pond relative to the control pond, and eliminated in the oil-dispersant ponds. This condition persisted until the following year when the mesozooplankton was similar in all ponds. The protozooplankton experienced species shifts with Halteria and Strobilidium being eliminated initially in all treated ponds, but Halteria was collected in samples the following spring. Other protozoans such as thecamoebae increased in the treated ponds, while others, like zooflagellates , did not appear to be affected by the chemicals. Zoobenthos was affected by treatment, with the number of different types being reduced. The zoobenthos had recovered in one of the treated ponds the following spring, and that in the other treated ponds were recovering. Surface insects were eliminated after treatment, but recolonized during the next spring. Nekton were initially reduced by treatment. The population changes are discussed with respect to the fate of oil.