Early intervention with gastrodin reduces striatal neurotoxicity in adult rats with experimentally‑induced diabetes mellitus.
Mol Med Rep. 2019 Apr ;19(4):3114-3122. Epub 2019 Feb 14. PMID: 30816461
Glutamate‑induced excitotoxicity in the striatum has an important role in neurodegenerative diseases. It has been reported that diabetes mellitus (DM) induces excitotoxicity in striatal neurons, although the underlying mechanism remains to be fully elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of gastrodin on DM‑induced excitotoxicity in the striatal neurons of diabetic rats. Adult Sprague‑Dawley rats were divided into control, diabetic, and gastrodin intervention groups. Diabetes in the rats was induced with a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg). In thegastrodin groups, the rats were gavaged with 60 or 120 mg/kg/day gastrodin for 6 weeks, 3 weeks following the induction of diabetes. Pathological alterations in the striatum were assessed using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. The protein expression levels of phosphorylated (p)‑extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, p‑mitogen‑activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)1/2, tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrKB) and brain‑derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the striatal neurons were evaluated by western blotting and double immunofluorescence. Additionally, the extracellular levels of glutamate were measured by microanalysis followed by high‑pressure‑liquid‑chromatography. In diabetic rats, striatal neuronal degeneration was evident following H&E staining, which revealed the common occurrence of pyknotic nuclei. This was coupled with an increase in glutamate levels in the striatal tissues. The protein expression levels of p‑ERK1/2, p‑MEK1/2, TrKB and BDNF in the striatal tissues were significantly increased in the diabetic rats compared with those in the normal rats. In the gastrodin groups, degeneration of the striatal neurons was ameliorated. Furthermore, the expression levels of glutamate, p‑ERK1/2, p‑MEK1/2, TrKB and BDNF in the striatal neurons were decreased. From these findings, it was concluded that reduced neurotoxicity in striatal neurons following treatment with gastrodin may be attributed to its suppressive effects on the expression of p‑ERK1/2, p‑MEK1/2, BDNF and TrKB.