The Effect of Acetylcysteine on Renal Function in Experimental Models of Cyclophosphamide-and Ifosfamide-Induced Cystitis.
Curr Urol. 2020 Oct ;14(3):150-162. Epub 2020 Oct 13. PMID: 33224008
Introduction: Urotoxicity is a characteristic attribute of cy-clophosphamide and ifosfamide. Acetylcysteine is perceived as a uroprotective and possible nephroprotective compound. The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of acetylcysteine treatment on the morphology of the kidneys and the urinary bladder, and renal function in rats with cystitis induced by cyclophosphamide or ifosfamide.
Methods: Cystitis was induced in rats belonging to groups 2 and 3, as well as 4 and 5, by five administrations of cyclophosphamide (75 mg/kg) or ifosfamide (80 mg/kg) respectively. Additionally, groups 3 and 5 received acetylcysteine (200 mg/kg). Group 1 was"sham treated"as a control. Upon conclusion of the experiment, the animals were euthanized and their kidneys and urinary bladders were collected for histopathological analysis. The assessment of renal function was based on classic nitrogen blood parameters (urea, creatinine, and uric acid), as well as proteinuria and cystatin C (CysC) and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) urinary concentrations, and their 24-hour elimination with urine.
Results: Reduction of blood urea nitrogen and uric acid, and urinary pH with a significant increase of CysC and KIM-1 urinary concentrations, and their 24-hour elimination with urine were observed in groups 2 and 4. The acetylcysteine treatment did not cause a significant change of blood parameters, but significantly decreased 24-hour elimination of CysC and KIM-1 with urine, and accounted for alleviation of the histopathological abnormalities of urinary bladders, with no significant effects on the structure of the kidneys.
Conclusions: Acetylcysteine used in the experimental model of cyclophosphamide- and ifosfamide-induced cystitis had a uroprotective effect and also reduced renal dysfunction, which suggests its potential use as a nephroprotective compound in cyclophosphamide/ifosfamide therapy.