Effect of Blueberry Anthocyanin-Rich Extracts on Peripheral and Hippocampal Antioxidant Defensiveness: The Analysis of the Serum Fatty Acid Species and Gut Microbiota Profile.
J Agric Food Chem. 2021 Mar 12. Epub 2021 Mar 12. PMID: 33709697
The current study investigated the positive effects of blueberry anthocyanin-rich extracts (BAE) on either peripheral or hippocampal antioxidant defensiveness and established the connection of the improved antioxidant status with the altered fatty acid species and gut microbiota profile. High-fat diet-induced oxidative stress in C57BL/6 mice was attenuated by BAE administration, which was reflected by strengthened antioxidant enzymes, alleviated hepatic steatosis, and improved hippocampal neuronal status. Serum lipidomics analysis indicated that the fatty acid species were altered toward the elevated unsaturated/saturated ratio, along with phospholipid species toward enriched-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid compositions. The modulated antioxidant pattern could be attributed to the increased bacteria diversity, stimulated probiotics (and) and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) producers (,, and) improved by anthocyanins and their metabolites, which improved the colon environment, characterized by promoted SCFAs, restored colonic mucosa, and reorganized microbial structure. Thus, anthocyanin-rich dietary intervention is a promising approach for the defensiveness in human oxidative damage and neurodegeneration.