Effect of chrysin on the formation of N-acetyl-p-benzoquinoneimine, a toxic metabolite of paracetamol in rats and isolated rat hepatocytes.
Chem Biol Interact. 2019 Apr 1 ;302:123-134. Epub 2019 Feb 19. PMID: 30794797
Ravindra Babu Pingili
Paracetamol (N-acetyl-para amino phenol) is the most commonly used analgesic and antipyretic around the world. Its causes hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity at overdose or even at therapeutic doses. It is primarily metabolized by glucuronidation and sulfate conjugation. It is also metabolized by cytochrome-P450 system (CYP2E1, CYP1A2 and CYP 3A4), leading to the formation of N-acetyl-p-benzoquinoneimine (NAPQI). The present study was planned to investigate the influence of chrysin (known CYP2E1 and CYP3A4 inhibitor) on the bioactivation of paracetamol to NAPQI using rat liver microsomes in vitro and rats in vivo. Paracetamol (80 mg/kg) was administered orally without or with silymarin (100 mg/kg), a known CYP2E1 inhibitor and chrysin (100 and 200 mg/kg) to rats for 15 consecutive days. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and the peak plasma concentration (C) of paracetamol were dose-dependently increased with chrysin (100 and 200 mg/kg) compared to paracetamol control group. On the other hand, the AUCand Cof NAPQI were decreased significantly with chrysin (100 and 200 mg/kg). The elevated liver and kidney function markers were significantly reduced by chrysin and silymarin compared to paracetamol control group (P < 0.01). Histopathological studies of liver and kidney also well correlated with liver and kidney function tests. Chrysin also reduced the formation of NAPQI in the incubation samples of rat hepatocytes. The present study (both in vivo and in vitro) results revealed that chrysin might be inhibitedthe CYP2E1, CYP1A2 and CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of paracetamol; thereby decreased the formation of NAPQI and protected the liver and kidney.