Effect of differential thermal drying conditions on the immunomodulatory function of ginger. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Effect of Differential Thermal Drying Conditions on the Immunomodulatory Function of Ginger.
J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2019 Jul 28 ;29(7):1053-1060. PMID: 31280523
Ji Su Lee
Thermal drying is a common process used in the food industry for the modification of agricultural products. However, while various studies have investigated the alteration in physiochemical properties and chemical composition after drying, research focusing on the relationship between different dehydration conditions and bioactivity is scarce. In the current study, we prepared dried ginger under nine different conditions by varying the processing time and temperature and compared their immunomodulatory effects. Interestingly, depending on the drying condition, there were significant differences in the immunestimulating activity of the dried ginger samples. Gingers processed at 50°C 1h displayed the strongest activation of macrophages measured by TNF-α and IL-6 levels, whereas, freezedried or 70°C- and 90°C-dried ginger showed little effect. Similar results were recapitulated in primary bone marrow-derived macrophages, further confirming that different dehydration conditions can cause significant differences in the immune-stimulating activity of ginger. Induction of ERK, p38, and JNK signaling was found to be the major underlying molecular mechanism responsible for the immunomodulatory effect of ginger. These results highlight the potential to improve the bioactivity of functional foods by selectively controlling processing conditions.