The effect of high fructose corn syrup on the plasma insulin and leptin concentration, body weight gain and fat accumulation in rat.
Adv Clin Exp Med. 2019 Jun 18. Epub 2019 Jun 18. PMID: 31237122
BACKGROUND: Studies on the effects of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) on the metabolism are scarce and their results are inconsistent.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this research was to examine in an animal model the effect of replacing sucrose with HFCS-55 on the levels of glucose, insulin and leptin, and on the consumption of feed, body weight gain and fat storage.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: The experiment was carried out on 30 Wistar male rats aged 5 months, fed 3 different diets, containing whole grains (group I), 10% sucrose (group II) and 10% HFCS (group III).
RESULTS: After the results it was found that the amount of daily energy intake was similar for all the groups of animals. There was no difference in fasting glucose and insulin level and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index. The higher leptin level was determined in blood plasma of the animal fed a feed with sucrose (group 2) compared to group 1 and group 3 (360 ng/mL vs 263 and 230 ng/mL, respectively). Despite the similar amounts of consumed energy, the animals fed with modified feeds achieved higher weight gain and the effect of HFCS-55 was similar to the effect of sucrose.
CONCLUSIONS: The obtained results indicate similar metabolic effects of HFCS-55 and sucrose in feed, at the level of 11% dietary energy value, on the energy intake, body weight gain and periorgan adipose tissue accumulation in rats. The results suggest that accusations against HFCS as the major dietary contributor to overweight and obesity are unfounded, and the total elimination of HFCS from the diet seems to be unnecessary. The modified feeds (containing both sucrose and HFCS) produced greater absolute weight gain and weight gain per kilojoule consumed compared to standard feeds. This may indicate not just a basic thermodynamic consequence of consuming more energy, but a change in the metabolic efficiency when consuming a diet with simple sugars and refined carbohydrates.