The Effect of Polyphenols on Hypercholesterolemia through Inhibiting the Transport and Expression of Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Oct 6 ;20(19). Epub 2019 Oct 6. PMID: 31590417
The Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) protein is a cholesterol transporter that is expressed in the small intestine. This report describes the discovery of NPC1L1, its transport properties, and the inhibitory effects of polyphenols on NPC1L1. NPC1L1 was identified in 2004 while searching for ezetimibe molecular targets. Excessive synthesis of cholesterol results in hyperlipidemia, which increases the amount of bile cholesterol excreted into the duodenum. The inhibition of NPC1L1 decreases blood cholesterol because food and bile cholesterol are also absorbed from NPC1L1 in the intestine. Some polyphenols, particularly luteolin, have been reported as NPC1L1-mediated anti-dyslipidemia constituents. Luteolin affects NPC1L1 through two mechanisms. Luteolin directly inhibits NPC1L1 by binding to it, which occurs in a short timeframe similar to that for ezetimibe. The other mechanism is the inhibition of NPC1L1 expression. Luteolin reduced the binding of Sterol-regulatory element-binding protein 2 (SREBP2) in the promoter region of thegene and decreased mRNA levels ofand. These data suggest that luteolin decreases the expression of NPC1L1 through regulation of transcription factors. This review also explores the effect of other polyphenols on NPC1L1 and hypercholesterolemia.