Effects of blood orange juice intake on antioxidant bioavailability and on different markers related to oxidative stress.
J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Feb 23 ;53(4):941-7. PMID: 15713002
Orange juice is a source of antioxidants that might afford in vivo protection from oxidative stress. To test this hypothesis, we carried out a human intervention study with blood orange juice containing high amounts of vitamin C, anthocyanins, and carotenoids. Sixteen healthy female volunteers were enrolled in a crossover study and were given 600 mL/day of blood orange juice or a diet without juice for 21 days. Before and after each intervention period, plasma vitamin C, cyanidin-3-glucoside, and carotenoids were quantified. Furthermore, plasma antioxidant capacity, malondialdehyde concentration in plasma, 11-dehydrotromboxane B(2) urinary excretion, and lymphocyte DNA damage were evaluated as biomarkers of oxidative stress. Blood orange juice consumption determined a significant increase in plasma vitamin C, cyanidin-3-glucoside, beta-cryptoxanthin, and zeaxanthin. Also, lymphocyte DNA resistance to oxidative stress was improved whereas no effect was observed on the other markers that we analyzed. In turn, these results suggest that blood orange juice is a bioavailable source of antioxidants, which might moderately improve the antioxidant defense system; however, the long-term effects of its consumption are to be further investigated.