Effects of High Intensity Dynamic Resistance Exercise and Whey Protein Supplements on Osteosarcopenia in Older Men with Low Bone and Muscle Mass. Final Results of the Randomized Controlled FrOST Study.
Nutrients. 2020 Aug 5 ;12(8). Epub 2020 Aug 5. PMID: 32764397
The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of high intensity dynamic resistance exercise (HIT-DRT) and whey protein supplementation (WPS) on bone mineral density (BMD) and sarcopenia parameters in osteosarcopenic men. Men≥ 72 years with osteosarcopenia (= 43) were randomly assigned to a HIT-RT (HIT-RT:= 21) or a non-training control group (= 22). Supervised HIT-RT twice/week was applied for 18 months, while the control group maintained their habitual lifestyle. Supplying WPS, total protein intake amounted to 1.5-1.6 (HIT-RT) and 1.2 g/kg/body mass/d (control). Both groups were supplied with calcium and vitamin D. Primary study outcomes were BMD and the sarcopenia Z-score. After adjusting for multiplicity, we observed significant positive effects for sarcopenia Z-score (standardized mean difference (SMD): 1.40), BMD at lumbar spine (SMD: 0.72) and total hip (SMD: 0.72). In detail, effect sizes for skeletal muscle mass changes were very pronounced (1.97,<0.001), while effects for functional sarcopenia parameters were moderate (0.87,= 0.008; handgrip strength) or low (0.39,= 0.209; gait velocity). Apart from one man who reported short periods of temporary worsening of existing joint pain, no HIT-RT/WPS-related adverse effects or injuries were reported. We consider HIT-RT supported by whey protein supplementation as a feasible, attractive, safe and highly effective option to fight osteosarcopenia in older men.