Effects of Hydroxysafflor Yellow A on the PI3K/AKT Pathway and Apoptosis of Pancreaticβ-Cells in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Rats.
Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. 2020 ;13:1097-1107. Epub 2020 Apr 9. PMID: 32308459
Background and Aim: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a complex metabolic disease, has become a major public health issue around the world. Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) is the major active chemical ingredient of. (safflower), which is widely used in patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in China. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-diabetic effect and potential mechanism of HSYA on the high-fat diet (HFD) and streptozotocin (STZ-)-induced T2DM rats.
Materials and Methods: T2DM rats were induced by feeding HFD (60% fat) for four weeks followed by intraperitoneal injection of a low dose of streptozocin (35mg/kg). The T2DM rats were treated with HSYA (120mg/kg) or metformin (90mg/kg) for eight weeks. Biochemical analysis, histological analysis and Western blot analysis were conducted after 8 weeks of intervention.
Results: The treatment with HSYA evidently reduced fasting-blood glucose and insulin resistance in T2DM rats, indicated by results from fasting-blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, fasting insulin levels and histology of pancreas islets. The Western blot results revealed that HSYA reversed the down-regulation of PI3K and AKT in liver. The TUNEL assay analysis of pancreatic tissue showed that HSYA could inhibit the apoptosis of pancreaticβ-cells to a certain extent. Moreover, HSYA-treatment increased the levels of glycogen synthase and hepatic glycogen and improved lipid metabolism by reducing the triglyceride, total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, even though it did not change the rats' body weights.
Conclusion: The results of this study suggested that HSYA could promote PI3K/Akt activation and inhibit the apoptosis of pancreaticβ-cells directly or indirectly, which might be the underlying mechanisms in HSYA to improve insulin resistance and regulate glycolipid metabolism in T2DM rats.