[Effects of the maca extract on the ultrastructures of mitochondria in the spinal nerve cell and exercise endurance].
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi. 2017 Jun 8 ;33(6):535-538. PMID: 29931904
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of maca extract on the ultrastructures of mitochondria in the spinal nerve cell and exercise endurance.
METHODS: The Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, including the control group (no swimming), the swimming group (free swimming), and 3 treatment groups treated with the maca extract at the doses of 4.0, 5.3 and 8.0 g/kg body weight. The animals in swimming and treatment groups were then for free swimming in the circulating water flow daily for 15 days. On the 16day after swimming endurance, the spinal and muscular tissues were collected from all groups. The mitochondrial ultrastructures of the neurons of the spinal cells were observed with the projection electron microscope, and the levels of the glycogen, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and Cain muscle tissues were determined by the RIA method.
RESULTS: When rats were treated with maca extract (at 4.0, 5.3, 8.0 g/kg body weight), the total swimming time and the swimming duration before sinking were increased by 19.83%, 60.28%, 77.55%, and 55.34%, 73.91%, 94.47%, respectively, compared with the simple swimming group(<0.01), while the sinking times were decreased by 34.35%, 51.18% and 57.96%, compared with those of the swimming group. Also, the levels of SOD, GSH-Px, and muscle glycogen in three treatment groups were enhanced by 5.12%, 22.74%, 52.53%, 44.22%, 77.79%, 98.45%(<0.01), and 35.08%, 47.83%,81.88% (<0.01)respectively over the swimming rats without treatment, but the MDA content and the Calevels were reduced by 20.10%, 31.49% 38.72%, and 6.42%, 17.58%, 26.35%,compared with the simple swimming group(<0.01). In addition, compared to the swimming group, the mitochondrial densities of volume (VD), surface (SD) and numbers (ND) of spinal nerve cells in rats treated with maca extract (4.0, 5.3, 8.0 g/kg body weight) were reduced by 7.79%, 18.18%, 31.17%, 16.95%, 27.34%, 43.31% and 13.51%, 23.19%, 43.15%, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated the protective effects of maca extract on the mitochondria of spinal cell and suggested that maca extract could improve the muscle antioxidant activity by increasing the levels of SOD, GSH-Px, and muscle glycogen.