GSM 900 MHz microwave radiation affects embryo development of Japanese quails.
Electromagn Biol Med. 2012 Mar ;31(1):75-86. Epub 2012 Jan 23. PMID: 22268787
A wide range of non thermal biological effects of microwave radiation (MW) was revealed during the last decades. A number of reports showed evident hazardous effects of MW on embryo development in chicken. In this study, we aimed at elucidating the effects of MW emitted by a commercial model of GSM 900 MHz cell phone on embryo development in quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) during both short and prolonged exposure. For that, fresh fertilized eggs were irradiated during the first 38 h or 14 days of incubation by a cell phone in"connecting"mode activated continuously through a computer system. Maximum intensity of incident radiation on the egg's surface was 0.2μW/cm2.The irradiation led to a significant (p<0.001) increase in numbers of differentiated somites in 38-hour exposed embryos and to a significant (p<0.05) increase in total survival of embryos from exposed eggs after 14 days exposure. We hypothesized that observed facilitating effect was due to enhancement of metabolism in exposed embryos provoked via peroxidation mechanisms. Indeed, a level of thiobarbituric acid (TBA) reactive substances was significantly (p<0.05-0.001) higher in brains and livers of hatchlings from exposed embryos. Thus, observed effects of radiation from commercial GSM 900 MHz cell phone on developing quail embryos signify a possibility for non-thermal impact of MW on embryogenesis. We suggest that the facilitating effect of low doses of irradiation on embryo development can be explained by a hormesis effect induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Future studies need to be done to clarify this assumption.