Epigallocatechin-3-gallate-induced vascular normalization in A549-cell xenograft-bearing nude mice: therapeutic efficacy in combination with chemotherapy.
Cancer Manag Res. 2019 ;11:2425-2439. Epub 2019 Mar 27. PMID: 30988640
Purpose: Large-scale studies have revealed that appropriate antiangiogenic treatment enables the recovery of the normal structure and function of solid tumor vessels. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a natural extract of green tea, has multiple effects on angiogenesis. However, normalization of blood vessels due to natural ingredients has not yet been reported. Therefore, we examined the microvasculature, microenvironment, and efficacy of EGCG combined with chemotherapy in a xenograft model.
Methods: We treated A549 cell (human lung adenocarcinoma cell line) xenograft-bearing nude mice with EGCG in vivo. CD31,αSMA, and collagen IV were labeled and detected using quantum-dot double-labeled immunofluorescence to measure microvessel density, microvessel pericyte-coverage index, and collagen IV expression. Vessel-perfusion function was determined by lectin injection, permeability by Evans blue extravasation, interstitial fluid pressure using the wick-in-needle technique, and hypoxia levels using a polarographic electrode and immunohistochemical pimonidazole labeling. Cisplatin concentration in tumor tissue was detected using graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Xenograft mice were randomized into five groups: treated with saline, cisplatin, EGCG, EGCG + cisplatin on day 1, or EGCG + cisplatin during the vascular normalization window. Tumor-growth delay and tumor-suppression rate were measured to evaluate tumor growth.
Results: EGCG treatment in vivo caused temporary changes, including transient depression of microvessel density, microvessel pericyte-coverage index, and collagen IV expression, transient elevation of vessel perfusion and permeability, and decreased interstitial fluid pressure and hypoxia. During vascular normalization, pretreatment with EGCG increased cisplatin concentration in tumor tissue compared with treatment with cisplatin only. Tumor-growth delay after treatment in the five groups during the vascular normalization window was 6.3±1.51, 7.5±1.57, 8.3±1.79, 12.1±1.35, and 15.4±1.99 days, indicating synergistic EGCG-cisplatin effects, especially during the vascular normalization window (<0.01).
Conclusion: EGCG-induced vascular normalization in human lung adenocarcinoma may be a novel modality for enhancing chemotherapy effects.