Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate (EGCG) Suppresses Pancreatic Cancer Cell Growth, Invasion, and Migration partly through the Inhibition of Akt Pathway and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition: Enhanced Efficacy when Combined with Gemcitabine.
Nutrients. 2019 Aug 9 ;11(8). Epub 2019 Aug 9. PMID: 31405071
Most pancreatic cancers are usually diagnosed at an advanced stage when they have already metastasized. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major polyphenolic constituent of green tea, has been shown to reduce pancreatic cancer growth, but its effect on metastasis remains elusive. This study evaluated the capacity of EGCG to inhibit pancreatic cancer cell migration and invasion and the underlying mechanisms. EGCG reduced pancreatic cancer cell growth, migration, and invasion in vitro and in vivo. EGCG prevented"Cadherin switch"and decreased the expression level of TCF8/ZEB1,β-Catenin, and Vimentin. Mechanistically, EGCG inhibited the Akt pathway in a time-dependent manner, by suppressing IGFR phosphorylation and inducing Akt degradation. Co-treatment with catalase or N-Acetyl-L-cysteine did not abrogate EGCG's effect on the Akt pathway or cell growth. Moreover, EGCG synergized with gemcitabine to suppress pancreatic cancer cell growth, migration, and invasion, through modulating epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers and inhibiting Akt pathway. In summary, EGCG may prove beneficial to improve gemcitabine sensitivity in inhibiting pancreatic cancer cell migration and invasion, to some extent through the inhibition of Akt pathway and epithelial-mesenchymal transition.