Eicosapentaenoic acid increases lipolysis through up-regulation of the lipolytic gene expression and down-regulation of the adipogenic gene expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.
Genes Nutr. 2008 Feb;2(4):327-30. PMID: 18850226
In this study, we investigated the lipolytic effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated in a serum-free medium with 300 muM of EPA for 3, 6, 12, and 24 h. In comparison with the control, intracellular lipid accumulation was significantly decreased by 24% at 24 h following the addition of EPA (P<0.05). Under the same experimental conditions, there was an increase of glycerol and free fatty acids (FFAs). The mRNA level of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I-a, a component of the fatty-acid shuttle system involved in the mitochondrial oxidation of long-chain fatty acids, was also significantly elevated by EPA (P<0.05). However, the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), which are involved in adipogenesis, was significantly down-regulated by EPA (P<0.05). These results suggest that EPA may modulate lipid metabolism by stimulation of lipolysis, which was associated with induction of lipolytic gene expression and suppression of adipogenic gene expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.