Ellagic Acid and Urolithins A and B Differentially Regulate Fat Accumulation and Inflammation in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes While Not Affecting Adipogenesis and Insulin Sensitivity.
Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Mar 18 ;21(6). Epub 2020 Mar 18. PMID: 32197417
Ellagic acid (EA) is a component of ellagitannins, present in crops such as pecans, walnuts, and many berries, which metabolized by the gut microbiota forms urolithins A, B, C, or D. In this study, ellagic acid, as well as urolithins A and B, were tested on 3T3-L1 preadipocytes for differentiation and lipid accumulation. In addition, inflammation was studied in mature adipocytes challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Results indicated that EA and urolithins A and B did not affect differentiation (adipogenesis) and only EA and urolithin A attenuated lipid accumulation (lipogenesis), which seemed to be through gene regulation of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) and adiponectin. On the other hand, gene expression of cytokines and proteins associated with the inflammation process indicate that urolithins and EA differentially inhibit tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Urolithins A and B were found to reduce nuclear levels of phosphorylated nuclear factor κB (p-NF-κB), whereas all treatments showed expression of nuclear phosphorylated protein kinaseB (p-AKT) in challenged LPS cells when treated with insulin, indicating the fact that adipocytes remained insulin sensitive. In general, urolithin A is a compound able to reduce lipid accumulation, without affecting the protein expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α (c/EBPα), and PPARα, whereas EA and urolithin B were found to enhance PPARγ and c/EBPα protein expressions as well as fatty acid (FA) oxidation, and differentially affected lipid accumulation.