The possible neuroprotective effect of ellagic acid on sodium arsenate-induced neurotoxicity in rats.
Life Sci. 2018 Apr 1 ;198:38-45. Epub 2018 Feb 15. PMID: 29455002
OBJECTIVE: Arsenic is a well-known environmental contaminant, causing toxicity in different organs. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible neuroprotective effect of ellagic acid (EA) on arsenic-induced neurotoxicity in rats.
DESIGN: Animals were divided into five groups. The first group received normal saline (2 mL/kg) for 21 days as control group. Group 2 was orally treated with sodium arsenite (SA, 10 mg/kg) for 21 days. Groups 3 and 4 were orally treated with SA (10 mg/kg) for 7 days prior to EA (10 and 30 mg/kg respectively) treatment and continued up to 21 days simultaneously with SA administration. Group 5 was orally treated with EA (30 mg/kg) for 14 days. Passive avoidance test and rotarod test were done to evaluate the behavioral changes following SA and/or EA treatment. Different biochemical, histological and molecular biomarkers were assessed in the brain tissue.
RESULTS: Our data showed that SA significantly elevated brain tissue arsenic levels and malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, protein carbonylation, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interlukein-1β production. A decrease in the total antioxidant capacity, reduced glutathione content and glutathione peroxidase activity occurred in the brain of rats exposed to SA. SA-treated rats showed a significant impairment in long-term-memory, motor coordination and equilibrium. These results were supported by histopathological observations of the brain. Results revealed that administration of EA (30 mg/kg) reversed all neural markers alternation and ameliorated behavioral and histopathological changes induced by SA.
CONCLUSION: EA can effectively protect brain tissue against SA-induced neurotoxicity via its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.