Ellagic acid-derived urolithins as modulators of oxidative stress. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Ellagic Acid-Derived Urolithins as Modulators of Oxidative Stress.
Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2020 ;2020:5194508. Epub 2020 Jul 28. PMID: 32774676
Oxidative stress is a state of excess of prooxidative species relative to the antioxidant defenses (enzymatic and nonenzymatic) in a living organism. The consequence of this imbalance is damage of the major cellular macromolecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and DNA), which further leads to a gradual loss of tissue and organ function. It has been shown that oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases (cardiovascular, metabolic, and neurodegenerative diseases and cancer) and in the process of aging. Thus, many strategies to combat oxidative stress have been proposed and tested. In this context, food rich in antioxidants has received great attention. Pomegranate, berries, and walnuts have been recognized as"superfood"particularly for their cardioprotective effects. The common characteristic of these foods is the high content of ellagitannins. Since tannins are not bioavailable, they have been neglected in nutrition science and even considered antinutrients for a long time. However, this view has changed dramatically once it was recognized that ellagic acid, released from ellagitannins in the gastrointestinal system, is further metabolized by colonic microbiota to bioavailable compounds-known as urolithins. Thus, urolithins (3,4-benzocoumarin derivatives) have emerged as novel natural bioactive compounds and are now the focus of extensive investigations. So far, urolithins were shown to be powerful modulators of oxidative stress and agents with potential anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, and antiaging properties. Furthermore, a few synthetic derivatives of urolithins were recognized as lead compounds for new drug development. Available data on urolithin synthesis, physicochemical and pharmacokinetic characteristics, biological activity, and safety will be presented in this review.