Ellagic Acid Inhibitsα-Synuclein Aggregation at Multiple Stages and Reduces Its Cytotoxicity.
ACS Chem Neurosci. 2021 May 20. Epub 2021 May 20. PMID: 34015214
α-Synuclein is a natively unfolded protein and its deposition in the Lewy body and Lewy neurites in the substantia nigra region of the brain is linked to Parkinson's disease (PD). The molecular mechanisms of α-synuclein aggregation and its clearance have not been well understood. Until now, several strategies have been designed to inhibit α-synuclein aggregation and related cytotoxicity. Polyphenols, small molecules, synthetic peptides, and peptide-derived molecules have been considered as potential candidates that inhibit α-synuclein oligomerization and its fibrillation, and a few of themare in clinical trials. We have identified a polyphenolic compound ellagic acid (EA) that inhibits α-synuclein aggregation. Our results demonstrated that EA inhibits primary nucleation, seeded aggregation, and membrane-induced aggregation. The cytotoxicity of α-synuclein oligomers and fibers treated with EA has been investigated and we found that EA treated oligomers and fibrils showed reduced cytotoxicity. Additionally, we also observed inhibition of membrane binding of α-synuclein by EA in SH-SY5Y cells. In conclusion, the present study suggests that small molecules such as ellagic acidhave anti-amyloidogenic properties and may have therapeutic potential for Parkinson's disease and other proteinopathies.