Ellagic acid induces programmed cell death in pancreatic cancer cells. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Ellagic acid induces apoptosis through inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B in pancreatic cancer cells.
World J Gastroenterol. 2008 Jun 21;14(23):3672-80. PMID: 18595134
AIM: To determine the effect of ellagic acid on apoptosis and proliferation in pancreatic cancer cells and to determine the mechanism of the pro-survival effects of ellagic acid. METHODS: The effect of ellagic acid on apoptosis was assessed by measuring phosphatidylserine externalization, caspase activity, mitochondrial membrane potential and DNA fragmentation; and proliferation by measuring DNA thymidine incorporation. Mitochondrial membrane potential was measured in permeabilized cells, and in isolated mitochondria. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B) activity was measured by electromobility shift assay (EMSA). RESULTS: We show that ellagic acid, a polyphenolic compound in fruits and berries, at concentrations 10 to 50 mmol/L stimulates apoptosis in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells. Further, ellagic acid decreases proliferation by up to 20-fold at 50 mmol/L. Ellagic acid stimulates the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis associated with mitochondrial depolarization, cytochrome C release, and the downstream caspase activation. Ellagic acid does not directly affect mitochondria. Ellagic acid dose-dependently decreased NF-kappa B binding activity. Furthermore, inhibition of NF-kappa B activity using IkB wild type plasmid prevented the effect of ellagic acid on apoptosis. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that ellagic acid stimulates apoptosis through inhibition of the prosurvival transcription factor NF-kappa B.