Ellagic acid restored lead-induced nephrotoxicity by anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and free radical scavenging activities.
Heliyon. 2021 Jan ;7(1):e05921. Epub 2021 Jan 8. PMID: 33490681
Introduction: long-term environmental and occupational exposure to lead, which is a ubiquitous industrial pollutant, causes significant damage to tissues of kidney. This report aims to address this debilitating issue. A natural polyphenolic compound, Ellagic acid (EA) is having numerous potential medicinal properties. In this present study nephroprotective effects of EA has been evaluated in a rodent model with lead-induced toxicity.
Methods: Rats were treated with EA doses of 50 mg/kg and 25 mg/kg and simultaneously co-administered with lead acetate (60 mg/kg) for 2 months through oral route. The extent to which EA treatment provides nephroprotective effect was estimated by measurement of serum biomarkers, tissue antioxidants, inflammatory mediators, apoptosis, autophagy pathway and histological examination.
Results: EA treatment caused significant restoration in the level of serum biomarkers, tissue antioxidants and histological architecture of renal tissue. Treatment with either of the doses of EA causes restoration of pro-inflammatory mediators to approximately pre-exposure concentration. This phenomena is caused by suppression of expression levels of inflammatory molecules like tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), as well as functional expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Moreover, it was also observed that EA suppressed apoptotic and autophagic pathway by reduction of expression of light chain 3B (LC3B) level which are the oxidative DNA damage markers of renal tissue.
Conclusion: It can be safely concluded that EA provides protection against lead-induced nephrotoxicity to a significant degree.