Ellagitannins fromleaves suppress microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 expression and induce lung cancer cells to undergo apoptosis.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2019 Dec 22:1-7. Epub 2019 Dec 22. PMID: 31868102
Prostaglandin E(PGE), which is a potent pro-inflammatory lipid mediator, is biosynthesized from arachidonic acid by cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and microsomal PGE synthase-1 (mPGES-1). Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used clinically as COX inhibitors, but they have gastrointestinal and cardiovascular side-effects. Thus, the terminal enzyme mPGES-1 holds promise as the next therapeutic target. In this study, we found that the ellagitannins granatin A and granatin B isolated from pomegranate leaves, and geraniin, which is their structural analog, selectively suppressed mPGES-1 expression without affecting COX-2 in non-small cell lung carcinoma A549 cells. The ellagitannins also down-regulated tumor necrosis factorα, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and anti-apoptotic factor B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma 2, and induced A549 cells to undergo apoptosis. These findings indicate that the ellagitannins have anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic effects, due to their specific suppression of mPGES-1.: Bcl-2: B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma 2; COX: cyclooxygenase; CRE: cAMP response element; DHHDP: dehydrohexahydroxydiphenoyl; EtO: diethyl ether; EtOAc: ethyl acetate; GAPDH: glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase; iNOS: inducible nitric oxide synthase; mPGES-1: microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1;-BuOH: water-saturated-butanol; NSAIDs: non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; NF-κB: nuclear factor-κB; PG: prostaglandin; TNF: tumor necrosis factor; TUNEL: terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling.