Emodin improves alveolar hypercoagulation and inhibits pulmonary inflammation in LPS-provoked ARDS in mice via NF-κB inactivation.
Int Immunopharmacol. 2020 Nov ;88:107020. Epub 2020 Sep 21. PMID: 33182048
BACKGROUND: Alveolar hypercoagulation and pulmonary inflammation are important characteristics and they regulate each other in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). NF-κB pathway has been confirmed to be involved in regulation of this crosstalk. Emodin, a traditional Chinese herb, shows potent inhibitory effect on NF-κB pathway, but whether it is effective in alveolar hypercoagulation and pulmonary inflammation in ARDS remains to be elucidated.
PURPOSE: The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the efficacy of emodin on LPS-provoked alveolar hypercoagulation and excessive pulmonary inflammation in ARDS, and its potential mechanism.
METHODS: Mice ARDS was set up through LPS (40 μl, 4 mg/ml) inhalation. Male mice were randomly received with BPS, LPS only, LPS+ emodin (5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg, respectively) and BAY65-1942, an inhibitor of IKKβ. After 48 h of LPS stimulation, pulmonary pathological injury, expressions of Tissue factor (TF), plasminogen activatorinhibitor (PAI)-1, activated protein C (APC), collagen Ⅰ, collagen III, interleukin (IL) 8, IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in lung tissues, as well as concentrations of antithrombin III (AT III), procollagen peptide type III (PIIIP), soluble thrombomodulin (sTM), thrombin antithrombin complex (TAT), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and the percentage of inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were all determined. NF-κB pathway activation as well as NF-κB DNA binding activity in pulmonary tissue were simultaneously checked.
RESULTS: LPS stimulation resulted in obvious lung injury, excessive inflammatory cells infiltration, which all were dose-dependently ameliorated by emodin. Expressions of TF, PAI-1, collagenⅠ and collagen III as well as IL-8, IL-1β and TNF-α in pulmonary tissue were all elevated while APC decreased under LPS provocation, which were all reversed by emodin treatment in dose-dependent manner. LPS promoted the secretions of PIIIP, sTM, TAT and inhibited AT III production in BALF, and resulted in high levels of MPO and the percentage of inflammatory cells in BALF, all of which were significantly and dose-dependently attenuated while AT III production was increased by emodin. Meanwhile, emodin effectively inhibited NF-κB pathway activation and attenuated p65 DNA binding activity induced by LPS inhalation. Emodin and BAY-65-1942 had similar impacts in this experiment.
CONCLUSIONS: Emodin improves alveolar hypercoagulation and fibrinolytic inhibition and depresses excessive pulmonary inflammation in ARDS mice in dose-dependent manner via NF-κB inactivation. Our data demonstrate that emodin is expected to be an effective drug in alveolar hypercoagulation and pulmonary inflammation in ARDS.