Endogenous nitric oxide accumulation is involved in the antifungal activity of Shikonin against Candida albicans.
Emerg Microbes Infect. 2016 ;5(8):e88. Epub 2016 Aug 17. PMID: 27530748
The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the antifungal activity of Shikonin (SK) against Candida albicans (C. albicans) and to clarify the underlying mechanism. The results showed that the NO donors S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) and L-arginine could enhance the antifungal activity of SK, whereas the NO production inhibitor Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) attenuated antifungal action. Using the fluorescent dye 3-amino,4-aminomethyl-2', 7-difluorescein, diacetate (DAF-FM DA), we found that the accumulation of NO in C. albicans was increased markedly by SK in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In addition, theresults of real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) demonstrated that the transcription level of YHB1 in C. albicans was greatly increased upon incubation of SK. Consistently, the YHB1-null mutant (yhb1Δ/Δ) exhibited a higher susceptibility to SK than wild-type cells. In addition, although thetranscription level of CTA4 in C. albicans was not significantly changed when exposed to SK, the CTA4-null mutant (cta4Δ/Δ) was more susceptible to SK. Collectively, SK is the agent found to execute its antifungal activity directly via endogenous NO accumulation, and NO-mediated damage is relatedto the suppression of YHB1 and the function of CTA4.